Technology Glossary




  • Cache

    Caching is the act of storing data or information for faster processing in the future. The cache will save pieces of information to preserve personal preferences or settings for future reference to increase the User Experience.

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  • Call Duration

    The total time from when the call is successfully connected to when a participant ends it.

  • Cassandra

    Cassandra is a non-relational (NoSQL) database that can handle large data sets and access many simultaneous users. Cassandra handles data across multiple commodity servers to maintain quick responses and avoid failure points.

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  • Channel Type

    The channel type defines the configurations and permissions (e.g., Livestream, Messaging, etc.).

  • Chat API

    Use a real-time chat and messaging API to outsource comprehensive chat features without managing data or storage internally.

  • CaaS is a software service that allows developers to integrate real-time chat and messaging into existing apps and websites.

  • Chat Channel (Chat Room)

    A Chat Channel uses asynchronous data transfers to send messages from each user to a specific channel. That channel can hold many users and display messages in real-time.

  • Chat Widget

    A chat widget is a ready-to-use, customizable chat window on a website. Chat widgets can host chatbot technology and enable users to converse with it.

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  • Chatbot

    A chatbot is a software tool that developers can add to existing chat applications. Chatbots enhance the user experience by quickly answering questions or routing users to other professionals who can help provide customer support.

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  • CSAM refers to any visual depiction, including images or videos, that depicts or represents a child engaging in sexually explicit conduct.

  • Client

    A client acts as the intermediary device between a user and a server. The client will send requests through a browser or application and display the response sent back by the server.

  • Cloud

    Cloud computing is the ability for many users to access server data remotely simultaneously. Users can send and receive requests via website or web application through the client-server relationship without physically interacting with the server.

  • Cloud to the Edge is a network architecture that stores data in distributed locations instead of the primary data center.

  • Comet (Programming)

    Comet is a web application design paradigm that describes a continuous, two-way interaction between a server and a web browser using native HTTP methods.

  • Component

    A software component is a modular service that you can access independently through a larger application. Components can be organized throughout the file structure of an application or imported from a third-party provider.

  • Compose

    The Jetpack Compose Chat Messaging SDK is built on a low-level chat client and provides modular, customizable Compose UI components that you can easily drop into your app. You can also make API calls directly by using the client to add custom functionality.

  • Concurrent Connections

    Concurrent connections reflect the number of WebSocket connections on your chat app at the same time.

  • Configuration as Code

    Configuration as Code (CaC) is the expressing the configuration of your environment, product, application, infrastructure, or anything that needs to be configured in a text-based format that can be ingested automatically without you as the developer having to enter any values manually, flip switches, drag sliders, or type parameters.

    Configuration as Code is a dedicated and specific subset of Infrastructure as Code.

    The biggest advantage of expressing your configuration as code is repeatability and traceability. You can make the configuration a part of your (continuous) integration process.

  • In real-time communication, audio, and video quality must always be consistent and predictable. CBR can guarantee a stable network connection in situations with unstable bandwidth and other network limitations.

  • Conversational Channel

    A conversational channel is a place where users can converse. Examples include a website, real-time chat, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp, Slack, Kik, etc.




  • Fan-Out

    Fan-out is a messaging pattern where messages are broadcast in a one-to-many arrangement. A basic example of this pattern can be seen in the functionality of a Publish/Subscribe messaging system, as Pub/Sub implies the ability to route messages from a single sender to multiple receivers.


    FastAPI is an API framework written in Python for GET and POST requests. These requests follow OpenAPI convention and simplify the development process. JSON Web Tokens are pre-loaded in FastAPI and create unique user tokens based on UUID, email, and password.

  • Feed API

    Use Feed APIs to outsource comprehensive feed features without having to manage data or storage internally.

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    FTP is the standard protocol between client and server. The client will send a request to the server using a specified URL. Clients make requests via browser or application and can have methods such as GET or POST and information within the body. The URI path defines where the server is located and sends all data associated with the request. Once the server receives the request, it gets a response with a status code.

  • Filters

    Use filters when returning results with query endpoints. You can query using the custom fields you've defined on the object you are querying, as well as built-in fields.

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  • Flag

    If a user sees or receives an inappropriate message, they can flag that message. The chat moderator is then notified of the content that has been flagged for their review and can make a judgment on what action to take next based on the contents of the chat.

  • Flutter

    The Flutter Chat Messaging SDK includes both a low-level SDK and reusable UI components bundled together in a simple sample app. Build a fully functioning Flutter mobile chat app with support for rich messages, reactions, threads, image uploads and videos.

  • Function as a Service (FaaS)

    Functions can be outsourced and added to production code by executing functionality at an edge server. Add FaaS as microservices or simple functions within microservices.

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  • Gaming Interface

    A gaming interface allows users to interact with game functionality. Users can navigate through the game console and make selections or choices based on the options through the UI.

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  • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

    GDPR is a law maintained by the European Union to protect user-information stored electronically. The scope of GDPR extends to the transfer of data in or out of the EU as well.

  • Geocoding

    Geocoding (also known as forward geocoding to distinguish it from reverse geocoding) is the process of converting addresses (e.g. a house number, street name, zip code), into geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude).

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  • Geolocation API

    A Geolocation API is a communication interface between a client device or application (client-side), and an application or service (server-side) that identifies and returns information about the client’s geographical location.

  • GET Request

    GET is a common method used in HTTP requests to retrieve data from a server.

  • Ghost retail is a new eCommerce term that refers to an on-demand marketplace or retail business with a brick-and-mortar location to fulfill online orders and deliveries but is not customer-facing.



  • In-App Feedback

    In-app feedback refers to a user-driven mechanism within a mobile application that allows users to provide their opinions, suggestions, or comments about the app's features, functionality, or user experience directly from within the app itself. This feedback can take various forms, such as ratings, reviews, surveys, or text-based input, and is typically used by app developers and businesses to gather valuable insights for improving their product. In-app feedback mechanisms aim to enhance user engagement, gather user preferences, and identify areas for enhancement, contributing to a better overall user experience.

  • In-App Messaging

    In-app messaging is real-time messaging within an app or web application. In-app messaging allows users to communicate 1:1 for private chat and larger group chats with multiple users.

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

    IaaS providers manage datacenter infrastructure, offering optimal scalability and financial flexibility. Developers only pay for the storage needed and never worry about performance as the company grows or changes, alleviating the hassle of managing physical servers or other data storage systems.

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  • iOS/Swift

    The iOS Chat SDK is highly flexible, customizable and optimized for performance.

  • IP Messaging allows different types of devices to communicate with each other through the internet, including sending and receiving messages that contain text, media, and interactive links.







  • Omnichannel Communication

    Omnichannel communication refers to a multichannel approach to communication and sales that aims to provide customers with a seamless experience no matter if they shop in-store or online.

  • Open Graph (OG) Protocol

    Open Graph protocol facilitates developer simplicity by providing a universal protocol for cross-platform use. We can define the title, type, image, and URL with metadata, thus creating a graph object based on the information provided. Each entity within the page can function the same way, significantly minimizing repetition.

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  • Options

    In addition to filtering and sorting, options are another tool to organize and filter data with query channels. Examples include watching the channel and limiting the number of channels or messages returned.

  • Owner

    Traditional default chat configuration provides elevated permissions to the owner of a channel, message, or user. For example, you can delete your message or update your name or profile.




  • Random Access Memory (RAM)

    RAM is live or “working” data and can be accessed immediately from any physical location within your computer. The information can be read or written in any order and “accessed randomly.”

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  • React Native

    The React Native Chat SDK makes it easy to build in-app chat like iMessage, Telegram or Slack. Stream's React Native SDK is feature packed with rich messages (URL previews, user mentions, chat commands), reactions, threading, image & file uploading, and videos.

  • Reactive moderation responds to harmful content after users share it on a platform. This method typically relies on human moderators to monitor chat channels, and user reports to be actioned by moderators or administrators of the forum.

  • A real-time app is designed to function within a time frame that is effectively immediate for the user. The processing response happens so swiftly that any interaction seems to be occurring in real-time.

  • Real-Time Chat

    Real-time chat is a messaging service for applications that allow users to communicate in real-time.

  • Real-Time Communication transmits data packets from a sender to a receiver without delaying the data delivery.

  • Real-Time Computing

    Real-time data is information sent live from one source to another. An event will trigger a response and must guarantee that response within a specified timeframe, otherwise known as a “deadline.”

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  • Real-Time Messaging Protocol

    RTMP or Real Time Messaging Protocol is a proprietary system that is utilized for streaming live video feeds to devices running Flash.

  • Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is a network protocol that combines transcoding and programming to transfer video streams over the Internet.

  • Real-time transcription is the process of instantly converting speech into written text. After conversion, the transcription is usually displayed in real time on a screen or other output device.

  • REMB is a receiver-side WebRTC technology that estimates bandwidth (increase or decrease) to control network or transport congestion.

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  • Redis

    Redis is an in-memory database that parses Rapid Access Memory (RAM) for faster response times. By caching data in RAM, data is available instantaneously instead of disk storage, where information needs to be retrieved first.

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  • Region

    You connect to Stream’s global edge network based on your local position at the time of the call.

  • Regional Setting

    The regional setting indicates the location of your chat app on the AWS infrastructure. Selecting the correct place for your app is critical; otherwise you might experience latency issues. You should also align your customer base with your regional setting.

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  • A relational database stores object-based information and uses associations to pass data along.

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  • Representational State Transfer (REST)

    REST is a formatting convention used for reading, writing, and updating objects. Developers that follow this convention refer to routes “RESTful.” Developers use this as a way to simplify readability when multiple individuals are writing to the same codebase.

  • Rich Text Format

    RTF is a document format that encodes formatted text and graphics for use in word processing documents and emails. It supports text formatting options like font styles, sizes, colors, and text alignment, as well as the insertion of images, tables, and other graphics. RTF files can be opened and edited in many word processing applications.

  • RocksDB

    RocksDB is a high-performance database using key-value pairs for faster data writing and storage. RocksDB focuses on applications that require low-latency access to data, such as real-time messaging queues or graph queries.

  • Role

    Roles determine the permissions of end-users and staff members at the application level. Examples of roles are Admin, Guest, User, Anonymous, etc.